The many scripts of Othello

Quarto 1 (1622)

One significant difference between a modern day script of Othello and this Quarto 1 is the quality of the print. Although illustrations are scarce, their appearances are always marked with a sign of superior craftsmanship.  The first page of this script has an illustration that modern day printers could not hope to replicate. Of course, the differences in quality is understandable. Scripts and books during 1622 were significantly more expensive in comparison to our modern day print, so the effort that went into making these was perhaps tenfold.

Another significant difference between Quarto 1 and a modern day script is the overall vocabulary utilized by the writers. Instead of purse, purle is used instead. I can imagine how difficult it must be for a person who has never read Othello to read a Quarto 1 version of the play. Words we consider common are now increasing more complex through the addition of extra vowels. Luckily as someone who has already read Othello navigating the wording is not as difficult as a dry run through the script would be.

First Folio (1623)

I think a significant discussion point is the only one year different between the versions. As a result, the difference between these two prints cannot be extremely significant. However, while the words, I think, were mostly the same, the style of the script was different in that while the Quarto had all its lines in one large column on a page, the Folio divided its page into two columns. This resulted in a more contemporary feel because it looked so similar to a modern day play script.

One minor detail that this version had was the Latin used to signal a new scene: “Segunda.”

Overall, the play has not changed between these two print, however, the style in which they were produced varied significantly. This is understandable because different printers were probably used.


David Bowie

Artist: David Bowie

Song: Space Oddity (1969), Single

Ground Control to Major Tom
Ground Control to Major Tom
Take your protein pills
and put your helmet on

Ground Control to Major Tom
Commencing countdown,
engines on
Check ignition
and may God’s love be with you

Ten, Nine, Eight, Seven, Six, Five, Four, Three, Two, One, Liftoff

This is Ground Control
to Major Tom
You’ve really made the grade
And the papers want to know whose shirts you wear
Now it’s time to leave the capsule
if you dare

This is Major Tom to Ground Control
I’m stepping through the door
And I’m floating
in a most peculiar way
And the stars look very different today

For here
Am I sitting in a tin can
Far above the world
Planet Earth is blue
And there’s nothing I can do

Though I’m past
one hundred thousand miles
I’m feeling very still
And I think my spaceship knows which way to go
Tell my wife I love her very much
she knows

Ground Control to Major Tom
Your circuit’s dead,
there’s something wrong
Can you hear me, Major Tom?
Can you hear me, Major Tom?
Can you hear me, Major Tom?
Can you….

Here am I floating
round my tin can
Far above the Moon
Planet Earth is blue
And there’s nothing I can do.


Have No Fear Shakespeare is Here

SCENE III. A council-chamber.

The DUKE and Senators sitting at a table; Officers attending


There is no composition in these news
That gives them credit.

First Senator

Indeed, they are disproportion’d;
My letters say a hundred and seven galleys.


And mine, a hundred and forty.

Second Senator

And mine, two hundred:
But though they jump not on a just account,–
As in these cases, where the aim reports,
‘Tis oft with difference–yet do they all confirm
A Turkish fleet, and bearing up to Cyprus.


Nay, it is possible enough to judgment:
I do not so secure me in the error,
But the main article I do approve
In fearful sense.


[Within] What, ho! what, ho! what, ho!

First Officer

A messenger from the galleys.
Enter a Sailor


Now, what’s the business?


The Turkish preparation makes for Rhodes;
So was I bid report here to the state
By Signior Angelo.


How say you by this change?

First Senator

This cannot be,
By no assay of reason: ’tis a pageant,
To keep us in false gaze. When we consider
The importancy of Cyprus to the Turk,
And let ourselves again but understand,
That as it more concerns the Turk than Rhodes,
So may he with more facile question bear it,
For that it stands not in such warlike brace,
But altogether lacks the abilities
That Rhodes is dress’d in: if we make thought of this,
We must not think the Turk is so unskilful
To leave that latest which concerns him first,
Neglecting an attempt of ease and gain,
To wake and wage a danger profitless.


Nay, in all confidence, he’s not for Rhodes.

First Officer

Here is more news.
Enter a Messenge


Duke of Venice: There is no proof to back up these reports

First Senator: These reports are definitely skewed. I heard that they have one hundred and seven ships (galleys)

Duke of Venice: You right. My report says one hundred and forty.

Second Senator: What a coincidence my report says two hundred. It does matter anyways because they are estimates. What is important is that they all say a Turkish fleet is heading towards Cyprus.

Duke of Venice: All I understand is that we should be afraid.

Sailor: Hello! (What, ho!)  Who is there!

First Officer: Look, a messenger from the ships (galleys).

Duke of Venice: What’s up?

Sailor: The Turkish fleet (preparation) is heading towards Rhodes. So Mr. Angel (Signior Angelo) sent me.

Duke of Venice: What do you think about this change?

First Senator: This can’t be right. It does not make sense. They’re probably trying to screw with us to keep us on our toes. We need to think about the importance of Cyprus to the Turks. I mean Cyprus is not as well protected as Rhodes. I don’t think the Turks are going to do something so dangerous without a gain.

Duke of Venice: They are definitely not heading towards Rhodes.

First Officer: More news is here.

Through out this section of Othello, there is a pretty obvious use of personification. I think by doing this Shakespeare can collectively group the Turkish people together for easier use. Unfortunately there were not too many other literary device that I could find in this section of the play.

However it is worth mentioned that I did have to look up several words and translate them from modern English to even more modern English. These instances are noted with bold print. One example is galley, which is another word to describe ship.





My Comprehensive Review of Steve Jobs (The Book)

Walter Isaacson is an experienced biographer who has written accounts on Benjamin Franklin and Albert Einstein. In my opinion, this book far outclasses those previous titles. Mainly this is due to the actual contact Isaacson had with Steve Jobs. Over forty interviews were conducted over a period of two years. All of these accounts are clearly and truly presented in the book.

Unsurprisingly, Steven Jobs is written chronologically. However, the beginning of this novel actually revolves around Jobs’ parents. Readers find out how their situation would go on to affect their only son, Steve (whom they did not even name).

As the story progresses, Job matures both physically, mentally, and emotionally. Not only does this provided a window for spectators to observe the events that led to one of the greatest minds of all time, but also even those placed on a pedestal are not without their flaws. Furthermore, while the story progresses, Isaacson includes quotes from Jobs he was able to hear from various interviews.


Grendel Letter

You should read this letter John Gardener wrote to a class who read his book. It’s quite interesting because it discusses how Gardner the author of Grendel interpreted the epic of Beowulf. You can read it here.

Its interesting to observe how Gardner interprets his own book. While the writers of the initial letter thought that the dragon somehow represented the author’s thought about god, Gardner quickly corrects them by saying that in fact the dragon itself is not important. The dragon is simply another creature created out of his imagination like Grendel itself. He goes on to further state that when reading serious works of literature, readers should not assume that items in the book represent the author. In my opinion, this thought seems mostly counter-intuitive because I feel like that in my previous English classes, we (my classes) were taught to connect the story or aspects of the story to the author in some way. However, I can acknowledge Gardner’s point because aspects in serious works of literature are suppose to relate to some universal observation or truth.

Another aspect of Gardner’s letter worth mentioning is theories, specifically how they are nonsense. I find it strange then how he says theories are important for man to understand himself. I guess the theories made to not have to make sense as long as they help man discover himself.

Poem of the Day

And the Sea

Patrick Ryan Frank

Once, I wanted to be Hemingway.
But so did Hemingway. That act is hard—
dumb facts decked out as art, and anyway,
who gets what they want? And then who cares?
What matters when the water at your feet
is running out without you? I grew my beard
and bought a little boat on credit, named
it after myself and painted all of it blue,
then put us out to sea. And when it’s calm
and when the sun is out, we disappear.
We’re gone. What else was I supposed to do?

I think the first thing that should be addressed is whether or not I like this poem.

I do.

I especially think how simple this poem sounds, yet it holds some significant meaning. Then again most poems do…. Another aspect of this poem I like is the number of rhetorical questions it has (4 in total). I also think that the transition between I and We towards the end of the poem.

In my opinion, the meaning behind the poem is to find out what you want to do or the world will move around you will move past you. The poet talks about wanting to become Hemingway, which was his dream, but he gave it up. Readers can tell he gave up on becoming Neo-Hemingway because of how he stated dumb facts decked out as art, which is mocking the dream. THe world is moving pact the narrator because the “water” at his feet is running without him.

How to get ready for a new day in 4 steps


Alarm system (phone or actual alarm)


Toothbrush (preferably electric) and Toothpaste


Music playing device


Step 1: Getting out of bed

The night before make sure to set your alarm system for your desired time and place it across the room. As a result, when your alarm goes off in the morning, you will have to exert extra effort in order to reach it. Surely by then you’ll already be out of bed.

Step 2: How to stay awake

Staying awake is a struggle so after turning on the shower go brush your teeth and floss (repeat after breakfast of course). The vibrations from the toothbrush are just subtly enough to keep your eyes open.

Step 3: Shower

Once the shower is warm enough, place  a music playing device somewhere in the area and start playing music. Then, do your business.

Step 4: Getting ready for the day

Hopefully by this step you’ll already be awake and ready but if not go take a huge swig of hot coffee (the burn and the caffeine should really open your eyes).


You probably didn’t know Pope Leo the Great (Pope Leo I)

Who knew that the Huns invaded Europe? Who knew that the Huns even made their way to Italy? But as many of us know, the Huns did not stay in Italy. So who repelled them?

Pope Leo the Great.

Pope Leo born in 400 A.D. was the first pope to be called “the Great” (Wikipedia). He eventually climbed to ranks of the church and was unanimously elected Pope in 440. It would not be until 452 that Attila the Hun began to invade Italy. The story is poorly accounted for since only three representative (of course Pope Leo was included in that group) were sent to negotiate with Attila. An accepted theory is that Pope Leo begged so hard and so much that the Hun leader was so impressed that he decided to retreat. This theory does not make much sense to me because how would getting on your hands and knees prevent someone from wanting to invade your country? In fact, if that was the case, I would be more motivated to invade such a feeble country.

Another theory is that Attila retreated simply due to the fact that invading a country was not a smart choice given the batter conditioned of his army, a plague in northern Italy, and food shortages (ewtn). Obviously, this theory seems much more reasonable. Of course, I do not mean to take anything away from Pope Leo. He was truly an influential individual. His legacy lies in the creation of the Tome of Leo, which essential to the debates of Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon (Wikipedia). In the end Pope Leo the Great was not only an awesome diplomat but also one of the most affluent Popes in history.

The Hills

I can remember last summer like it was yesterday….

I was in Boston walking the streets with my dorm mates. The sun was pounding the pavement with intense UV rays. The heat flowed through the rubber soles of my shoes, and my feet felt its wrath. Each day my routine was the same: go to class, go get lunch, go study, and go explore the city. So with all this walking I had to do, I learned to listen to music everywhere. Just pop in some earphones, and all the noises of the city would fade away. Of course, I listened to a variety of songs. One song I remember the most is The Hills, which is sung and written by The Weekend.  I don’t really understand what made me so attracted to this song. Was it the provocative lyrics? The suggestive themes? The hard bass? Perhaps it was all of these elements combined.

I know for certain though the how slow and carefree the world around me seemed to be. Even the mean streets of Boston couldn’t ruin my elated feelings when I listened to The Hills. Every time I listened to this song I began to think about life in Texas. How were my friends doing? Am I missing out on anything?

While I never really payed attention to the actual lyrics, in hind sight they are pretty provocative. Have a look below.

[Verse 1]
Your man on the road, he doin’ promo
You said, “Keep our business on the low-low”

I’m just tryna get you out the friend zone
Cause you look even better than the photos

I can’t find your house, send me the info
Drivin’ through the gated residential

Found out I was comin’, sent your friends home
Keep on tryna hide it but your friends know

I only call you when it’s half past five
The only time that I’ll be by your side
I only love it when you touch me, not feel me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me, yeah
I only call you when it’s half past five
The only time I’d ever call you mine
I only love it when you touch me, not feel me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me, babe

[Verse 2]
I’ma let you know and keep it simple
Tryna keep it up don’t seem so simple
I just fucked two bitches ‘fore I saw you
And you gon’ have to do it at my tempo

Always tryna send me off to rehab
Drugs started feelin’ like it’s decaf

I’m just tryna live life for the moment
And all these motherfuckers want a relapse

I only call you when it’s half past five
The only time that I’ll be by your side
I only love it when you touch me, not feel me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me, yeah
I only call you when it’s half past five
The only time I’d ever call you mine
I only love it when you touch me, not feel me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me, babe

Hills have eyes, the hills have eyes
Who are you to judge, who are you to judge?
Hide your lies, girl, hide your lies
Only you to trust, only you

I only call you when it’s half past five
The only time that I’ll be by your side
I only love it when you touch me, not feel me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me, yeah
I only fuck you when it’s half past five
The only time I’d ever call you mine
I only love it when you touch me, not feel me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me
When I’m fucked up, that’s the real me, babe

Yene konjo, ewedihalehu
Yene fikir, fikir, fikir, fikir
Yene fikir, fikir, fikir, fikir